Archive for the ‘Nostalgia’ Category

Historic pictures of India

October 17, 2008

Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah in a heated conversation. A well-known photograph recently attributed to Kulwant Roy.

Gandhi and Jinnah in a heated conversation. A well-known photograph recently attributed to Kulwant Roy


String serenade

Jawaharlal Nehru addresses the press in Delhi in 1947, shortly before Independence

Nation Maker
Jinnah, sitting on a sofa like a modern potentate, surveys the scene from atop a truck at a procession in Allahabad in the 1940s, during a Muslim League session

Jinnah, sitting on a sofa like a modern potentate, surveys the scene from atop a truck at a procession in Allahabad in the 1940s, during a Muslim League session

Breadwinners
Workers gather to collect their wages from a ‘pay van’, as it was called, at the Bhakra Nangal project area in the 1950s

Workers gather to collect their wages from a 'pay van', as it was called, at the Bhakra Nangal project area in the 1950s

Tons Of Joy
Wrestling champ ‘Daula’ pins down his English adversary ‘Clark’, to the patent dismay of the referee, at a fundraiser for the Lahore Warplanes Fund, the Police Spitfire Fund and the Minto Park Fund, in Lahore in the late 1930s

Wrestling champ Daula pins down his English adversary Clark

Talks For Merger
Sardar Patel and the Maharaja of Patiala confer during a meeting of the Phulkian Union, an umbrella body of princely states, in Patiala, shortly after Independence

Gandhi and Jinnah in a heated conversation

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru walk to a Congress meeting while Sardar Patel is pulled alongside in a rickshaw. Roy’s access provided him with ample opportunities for informal photographs.


Nehru with his grandson, Rajiv Gandhi, and his daughter, Indira Gandhi, in an undated photo from the Kulwant Roy Collection. (Aditya Arya Archives, Kulwant Roy Collection )

The Great depression 2008 – stock market crash

October 13, 2008

$ .,.,. The Great depression 2008 – stock market crash .,.,. $

.,.,. Emotion at work – Stock Market Crisis 2008 .,.,.






























































__._,_.___

Lego Celebrities

October 8, 2008

Ramadhan around the world

September 29, 2008

Symbolizing the faith of Islam, the crescent moon is seen at sunset on top of the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan. This year’s Ramadan extends from September 1st to the 30th. Observant Muslims participate in fasting, one of the five pillars of their faith, this entire Lunar month. Eating, drinking, smoking and sexual activity is prohibited from dawn until sunset, when the fast is broken with the evening meal called Iftar. The fasting is meant to teach a person patience, humility and sacrifice, to set aside time to ask forgiveness, practice self-restraint, and pray for guidance in the future.(AP Photo/Wally Santana)

A Palestinian Muslim girl prays in the men’s mosque before the evening prayer called “tarawih”, during the holy fasting month of Ramadan in the West Bank city of Ramallah, Wednesday, Sept. 17, 2008. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen)

A Palestinian man reads from the Koran, during the Muslim holy fasting month of Ramadan, in a mosque in the West Bank city of Jenin. (AP Photo/Mohammed Ballas)

Israeli border police hold back Palestinians on their way to pray for the holy fasting month of Ramadan at the Al Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem’s Old City, at Kalandia checkpoint, between the West Bank town of Ramallah and Jerusalem, Friday, Sept. 12, 2008. (AP Photo/Bernat Armangue)

Kashmiri Muslims pray inside the Jamia Masjid, or Grand Mosque, on the first Friday of Ramadan in Srinagar, India, Friday, Sept. 5, 2008.

In a pre-Ramadan tradition, Bosnian Muslim girls wash their face with water from cave as local tradition claims that the water and prayers inside the cave will bring personal beauty and success for the year, near the Bosnian town of Kladanj, 50 kms north of Sarajevo, Bosnia, on Sunday, Aug. 31, 2008. More than 30.000 people gathered to pray inside and outside the cave this year. (AP Photo/Amel Emric)

A man has his eyes smeared with traditional Kohl eyeliner before Friday prayers during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan in the southern Indian city of Hyderabad September 5, 2008. (REUTERS/Krishnendu Halder)

Workers sew prayer caps in a factory in old Dhaka, Bangladesh on September 18, 2008. Prayer caps have huge demand during the holy month of Ramadan. (REUTERS/Andrew Biraj)

A child prepares food for Iftar (evening meal) before the breaking of fast on the first day of Ramadan at Memon Mosque in Karachi, Pakistan on September 2, 2008. (REUTERS/Athar Hussain)

A Kashmiri man rests after performing prayers inside the shrine of Sufi saint, Mir Syed Ali Hamdani, during Ramadan in Srinagar, in Indian-administered Kashmir on September 11, 2008. (REUTERS/Fayaz Kabli)

Indonesian men attend Friday prayer at Istiqlal mosque, the biggest in Southeast Asia, in Jakarta, Indonesia, Friday, Sept. 12, 2008. (AP Photo/Irwin Fedriansyah)

Muslim women attend prayers on the eve of the first day of the Islamic fasting month of Ramadan at a mosque in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia on August 31, 2008. (REUTERS/Sigit Pamungkas)

Thai Muslim children pray at a mosque during Ramadan in Narathiwat province in Thailand on September 9, 2008. (MADAREE TOHLALA/AFP/Getty Images)

Amul Ads

September 24, 2008






Amul Vintage Advertisement

Source : Amul Website

Views from the Truck Driver Cabs

August 19, 2008

What truckers from different countries see while doing their job can be now shared with us! A funny selection that aims at gathering all the national stereotypes together, it seems!


Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

Виды из кабин дальнобойщиков разных стран (13 фото)

via gordei

Alphabet Evolution

August 18, 2008

TIME GETS BETTER WITH AGE!

August 12, 2008

Read it through to the end,

It gets better as you go!

I’ve learned that I like my teacher because she cries when we sings “Silent Night”.

Age 5.

I’ve learned that our dog doesn’t want to eat my broccoli either.

Age 7.

I’ve learned that when I wave to people in the country, they stop what they are doing and wave back. Age 9.

I’ve learned that just when I get my room the way I like it, Mom makes me clean it up again.

Age 12.

I’ve learned that if you want to cheer yourself up, you should try cheering someone else up.
Age 14.

I’ve learned that although it’s hard to admit it, I’m secretly glad my parents are strict with me.
Age 15.

I’ve learned that silent company is often more healing than words of advice.
Age 24.

I’ve learned that brushing my child’s hair is one of life’s great pleasures.
Age 26.

I’ve learned that wherever I go, the world’s worst drivers have followed me there.
Age 29.

I’ve learned that if someone says something unkind about me, I must live so that no one will believe it.
Age 30.

I’ve learned that there are people who love you dearly but just don’t know how to show it.
Age 42.

I’ve learned that you can make some one’s day by simply sending them a little note.
Age 44.

I’ ve learned that the greater a person’s sense of guilt, the greater his or her need to cast blame on others.
Age 46.

I’ve learned that children and grandparents are natural allies.
Age 47.

I’ve learned that no matter what happens, or how bad it seems today, life does go on, and it will be better tomorrow.
Age 48.

I’ve learned that singing “Amazing Grace” can lift my spirits for hours.
Age 49.

I’ve learned that motel mattresses are better on the side away from the phone.
Age 50.

I’ve learned that you can tell a lot about a man by the way he handles these three things: a rainy day, lost luggage, and tangled Christmas tree lights.
Age 51.

I’ve learned that keeping a vegetable garden is worth a medicine cabinet full of pills.
Age 52.

I’ve learned that regardless of your relationship with your parents, you miss them terribly after they die.
Age 53.

I’ve learned that making a living is not the same thing as making a life.
Age 58.

I’ve learned that if you want to do something positive for your children, work to improve your marriage.
Age 61.

I’ve learned that life sometimes gives you a second chance.
Age 62.

I’ve learned that you shouldn’t go through life with a catchers mitt on both hands. You need to be able to throw something back.
Age 64.

I’ve learned that if you pursue happiness, it will elude you.
But, if you focus on your family, the needs of others, your work, meeting new people, and doing the very best you can, happiness will find you.
Age 65.

I’ve learned that whenever I decide something with kindness, I usually make the right decision.
Age 66.

I’ve learned that everyone can use a prayer.
Age 72.

I’ve learned that even when I have pains, I don’t have to be one.
Age 82.

I’ve learned that every day you should reach out and touch someone.

People love that human touch-holding hands, a warm hug, or just a friendly pat on the back.
Age 90.

I’ve learned that I still have a lot to learn.
Age 92.

Most Valueless Currencies in the world

August 11, 2008

Zimbabwe

How would you like to be a billionaire? It’s easy, just move to the countries below.

Zimbabwe as an example, this country’s entire population of over 12,000,000 are billionaires. In fact, many are trillionaires, or even quadrillionaires. in case you’re unfamiliar with “quadrillions,” a quadrillion is a million billion, or a 1 followed by 15 zeros

The least valued currency unit is the currency in which a single unit buys the least number of any given other currency or the smallest amount of a given good. Most commonly, the calculation is made against a major reserve currency such as the euro (EUR) or the United States dollar (USD

As Americans worry about the rate of inflation exceeding 4 percent, we should consider Zimbabwe, where the inflation rate broke the shocking 100,000 percent mark and the country released a 250 million-dollar note (now valued below $4 on the black market). But Zimbabwe’s currency is hardly the only one inflated beyond reason.

Last month, a pint of milk (if you were lucky enough to find one in the store) cost Z$3 billion, a single egg, Z$4 billion. A pound of margarine cost Z$25 billion and a pack of 10 cookies costs Z$19 billion. That was last month. Prices are even higher today.

Vietnam

500,000-dong note. U.S. value: $31.37
An early-1980s U.S. embargo hobbled exports, leading to price controls and the printing of excess currency.
Early this month, the Vietnamese dong rate in the black market has strengthened towards the official level after the government released more dollars into the economy and cracked down on state banks’ currency transactions, which traded at 16,849.50 per dollar.

Indonesia

100,000-rupiah note. U.S. value: $11.05
During the 1997 Asian financial crisis, the rupiah lost 80 percent of its value within months, sparking riots in Jakarta (and soon ending President Suharto’s 32-year rule). From the years 2000 to 2008, the exchange rate has generally been between 8,000 and 11,000 rupiah to one United States dollar. As of June 2008, one United States dollar is worth approximately 9,300 Indonesian rupiah.

Iran

50,000-rial note. U.S. value: $5.35
Since the 1979 revolution, Iran’s inflation rate has hovered around 15 percent, thanks in part to ever-rising oil prices.
Until 2002, Iran’s exchange rate system was based on a multi-layered system, where state and para-state enterprises benefited from the preferred rate (1750 rial for $1) while the private sector had to pay the market rate (8000 rial for $1), hence creating an unequal competition environment. However, in March 2002, the multi-tiered system was replaced by a unified, market-driven exchange rate.



São Tomé (Sao Tome)

50,000-dobra note. U.S. value: $3.47.
This African island nation’s economy is tied to the volatile price of its chief export, cocoa, and is measured against its trading partners’ robust euro.

In late 2000, São Tomé qualified for significant debt reduction under the IMF-World Bank’s Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. The reduction is currently being reevaluated by the IMF, due to the attempted coup d’etat in July 2003 and subsequent emergency spending.

Guinea



10,000-franc note. U.S. value: $2.33
In 2002, the mineral-rich African country refused to implement reforms mandated by the International Monetary Fund; foreign cash dried up, and the central bank printed too much money.
From an average value of about 2500 Guinean francs to the pound sterling during the year 2000, the value of the currency has fallen to a current level (April 2006) of about 8000 to the GBP and about 4500 to the United States dollar.

Laos

50,000-Lao Kip. U.S. value: $5.73

Laos is a landlocked country with an inadequate infrastructure and a largely unskilled work force. The country’s per capita income in 2004 was estimated to be $1,900 on a purchasing power parity-basis.
The Asian financial crisis, coupled with the Lao Government’s own mismanagement of the economy, resulted in spiraling inflation and a steep depreciation of the kip, which lost 87% of its value from June 1997 to June 1999.

Turkmenistan

10,000-manat note. U.S. value: $1.92
Since 1991 – the last year of existence of the USSR – up to 1993 – the last year of rouble zone existence – the rate of inflation was measured in tens, hundreds and even thousands per cent per year.
For the recent years the process of involving internal sources of investment into the sphere of currency turnover and currency accrual has become unprecedented in its scale.

India paper money history PART 2

July 17, 2008

British India Issues

British India Issues commence with the Paper Currency Act of 1861 which gave the Government the monopoly of note issue in India. The management of paper currency across the geographical expanse of the Indian sub-continent was a task of considerable proportions. Initially the Presidency Banks were appointed as agents to promote the circulation of these notes in view of their existing infrastructure. The Act of 1861 authorised the Presidency Banks to enter into agreements with the Secretary of State for becoming agents for the issue, payment and exchange of promissory notes of the Government of India. The problem of redemption of these notes over vast expanses of the Indian sub-continent led to the concept of ‘Currency Circles’, where these notes were legal tender.

These Currency Circles increased in number as the Government progressively took over the work. The agency agreements with the Presidency Banks were finally terminated in 1867. The Management of Paper Currency was subsequently, in turn, entrusted to the Mint Masters, the Accountant Generals and the Controller of Currency.

Victoria Portrait Series

The first set of British India notes were the ‘Victoria Portrait’ Series issued in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 1000. These were unifaced, carried two language panels and were printed on hand-moulded paper manufactured at the Laverstock Paper Mills (Portals). The security features incorporated the watermark (GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, RUPEES, two signatures and wavy lines), the printed signature and the registration of the notes.

Image : Rupees Ten
Rupees Ten

Image : Rupees Twenty
Rupees Twenty

Image : Rupees Hundred
Rupees Hundred

British India Notes facilitated inter-spatial transfer of funds. As a security precaution, notes were cut in half. One set was sent by post. On confirmation of receipt, the other half was despatched by post.

Image : Half note
Half note

Underprint Series

The Victoria Portrait series was withdrawn in the wake of a spate of forgeries and replaced by the unifaced ‘Underprint Series’ which were introduced in 1867. In deference to public demand, notes in the denomination of Rupees Five were introduced. Initially, notes were legally encashable only in the Currency Circle in which they were issued; however, between 1903 an 1911, notes of denomination 5, 10, 50 and 100 were ‘universalised’, i.e. were legally encashable outside the Currency Circle of Issue.

The Underprint Series notes were printed on moulded paper and carried 4 language panels (Green Series). The languages differed as per the currency circle of Issue. Language panels were increased to 8 in the Red Series. The improved security features included a wavy line watermark, the manufacturer’s code in the watermark (the source of much confusion in dating), guilloche patterns and a coloured underprint.

This series remained largely unchanged till the introduction of the ‘King’s Portrait’ series which commenced in 1923.

Image : Green Underprint Rs.500
Green Underprint – Rupees Five Hundred

Image : Green Underprint Rupees Five
Green Underprint – Rupees Five

Image : Red Underprint Rupees Fifty
Red Underprint – Rupees Fifty

Small Denomination Notes

The introduction of small denomination notes in India was essentially in the realm of the exigent. Compulsions of the first World War led to the introduction of paper currency of small denominations. Rupee One was introduced on 30th November, 1917 followed by the exotic Rupees Two and Annas Eight. The issuance of these notes was discontinued on 1st January, 1926 on cost benefit considerations. These notes first carried the portrait of King George V and were the precursors of the ‘King’s Portrait’ Series which were to follow.

Image : Rupee One - Obverse
Rupee One – Obverse

Image : Rupee One - Reverse
Rupee One -Reverse

Rupees Two and Annas Eight - Obverse
Rupees Two and Annas Eight – Obverse

King’s Portrait Series

Regular issues of this Series carrying the portrait of George V were introduced in May, 1923 on a Ten Rupee Note. The King’s Portrait Motif continued as an integral feature of all Paper Money issues of British India. Government of India continued to issue currency notes till 1935 when the Reserve Bank of India took over the functions of the Controller of Currency. These notes were issued in denominations of Rs 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 10,000.

Image : Rupees Fifty
Rupees Fifty

Image : Rupees One Thousand
Rupees One Thousand

Image : Rupees Ten Thousand
Rupees Ten Thousand

With the establishment of the Currency Note Press at Nasik in 1928, currency notes came to be progressively printed in India. By 1932 the Nasik Press was printing the entire spectrum of India currency notes. The improved security features were changed watermarks, intricate portrait designs and multicoloured printing.

British India: Reserve Bank Issues

The Reserve Bank of India was formally inaugurated on Monday, April 1, 1935 with its Central Office at Calcutta.

The first Central Office of the Reserve Bank of India
The first Central Office of the Reserve Bank of India

It began operations by taking over from the Government the functions hitherto performed by the Controller of Currency and from the Imperial Bank the management of Government Accounts and Public Debt. The existing Currency Offices in Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Rangoon, Karachi, Lahore and Cawnpore became the branches of the Issue Department of the Bank. (It was not then considered necessary to have an office in Delhi.).

Section 22 of the RBI Act, 1934, empowered it to continue issuing Government of India notes till its own notes were ready for issue. The Central Board of the Bank recommended that the Bank notes retain the general size, appearance and design of the existing notes, albeit with modifications.

Notes with the portrait of Edward VIII were scheduled for release in the summer of ’37. But Edward’s heart had its reasons and his abdication, at levels mundane, delayed the Bank’s issues to January 1938 when the first Five Rupee note was issued bearing the portrait of George VI.

Image : Rupees Five
Rupees Five – First Note issued by Reserve Bank of India

This was followed by Rs 10 in February, Rs 100 in March and Rs 1,000 and Rs 10,000 in June 1938.

Image : Rupees One Hundred
Rupees One Hundred

Image Rupees One Thousand
Rupees One Thousand

Image : Rupees Ten Thousand
Rupees Ten Thousand

The first Governor, Sir Osborne Smith did not sign any bank notes; the first Reserve Bank issues were signed by the second Governor, Sir James Taylor.

Sir Osborne Smith Sir James Taylor
Sir Osborne Smith Sir James Taylor

In August 1940, the one-rupee note was reintroduced, once again as a war time measure, as a Government note with the status of a rupee coin, in terms of the Currency Ordinance of 1940 (IV of 1940). The issuance of Rs 2 and Annas 8 was contemplated but Rs 2 was introduced instead on 3rd March , 1943.

Image : Rupee One - Obverse
Rupee One Obverse

Image : Rupee One -Reverse
Rupee One Reverse

Image : Rupees Two
Rupees Two

During the war, Japanese Operations to destabilise Indian currency involved high quality forgeries, largely of Re 10 notes signed by Governor C.D. Deshmukh.

Sir C. D. Deshmukh
Sir C. D. Deshmukh

This necessitated a change in the watermark and obverse design from the profile portrait of George VI to his full frontal portrait. As an added security feature, the security thread was introduced for the first time in India.

Image : George VI Profile
George VI Profile

George VI Frontal
George VI Frontal

The George VI series continued till 1947 and thereafter as a frozen series till 1950 when post independence notes were issued.